In a large bowl or stand mixer fitted with the paddle attachment, combine the flour, sugar and salt. Drop in the butter cubes a few at a time while fluffing with a fork to coat with the flour mixture. Once all the butter is added, mix on low speed until the texture resembles coarse cornmeal and the butter pieces are no larger than small peas. Add the cold water and continue to mix on low speed just until a dough is formed. Do not overmix.
(Alternatively, you can pulse everything in a food processor instead, or mix in a bowl using a pastry cutter. I like using my stand mixer for convenience.)
Transfer the dough to a lightly floured surface. Divide in half and set one half aside. Pat dough into a ball and lightly flatten into a disc with 4 to 6 gentle taps of the rolling pin. Lift and flip the dough and give it a quarter turn. Lightly flour the bottom and top of the dough and rolling pin as needed while rolling to a 12-inch round. Carefully transfer to the bottom of a 9- or 10-inch pie plate.
Roll out the other half of dough in the same way, then complete the steps for pie filling below before transferring top crust to the plate.
Preheat oven to 375°F. Adjust rack to lower third position.
In a large mixing bowl, toss together the apple slices and lemon juice. Mix in the sugar, flour, cinnamon, and nutmeg until evenly coated. Transfer to the pastry-lined pie plate.
Transfer the second half of the dough over top of the apples. Press edges to seal. Use a sharp knife to cut slits into top of crust for venting the air. (See instructions below for a lattice style crust.)
In a small bowl, mix the egg white and 1 tablespoon water. Brush onto the pie crust (you will not use all of the egg wash). If desired, sprinkle with raw or regular sugar.
Place pie on a baking sheet and bake for 50-60 minutes, until filling is bubbly and crust is golden brown. Allow to rest on the counter for 1-2 hours before slicing.
For lattice style top crust:
To create the woven lattice top, after rolling out the second half of dough, cut into strips. Use the longer pastry strips near the center of the pie and the shorter ones near the edges. Cross the two longest strips over the center of the filled pie. Place a second long strip over the top cross strip. Fold back every other strip onto itself and lay a cross strip in place, then return folded-back strips to their original position. Continue weaving in this fashion, working from the center of the pie toward the edges. Trim and flute the edges decoratively with your thumb.
Tip: An easy way to transfer the dough is to use your rolling pin! Loosely fold the rolled out dough over the rolling pin then lift and transfer to the plate. Carefully roll it back out over the plate.